How to use Sass modules in Rails with Webpacker

Sass recently announced their long-awaited module system to replace the old and naive @import. It is awesome, and you can start using it today.

It is currently available in Dart Sass, which as far as I can tell is the only implementation of Sass yet to support this; none of the “big ones”, libsass nor node-sass, has added support yet.

This puts you in kind of a pickle, though, if you’re using Webpacker to compile your CSS: Webpacker comes with a sass-loader configuration, which uses node-sass by default.

First some setup

In order to demonstrate this working, however, we need to run through a couple of setup steps first:

  1. You need a Rails application
  2. You need to compile your CSS with Webpacker

If you have already set up the above, jump directly to “Use Dart Sass instead of Node Sass”.

1. Rails application

Let’s create a sample Rails application for this, skipping over the default sprockets-based asset pipeline:

$ rails new dart-sass --skip-sprockets 
$ cd dart-sass
$ rails generate controller hello world
$ rails server

We don’t need the default application.js, so let’s remove that from application.html.erb:

<%= javascript_pack_tag 'application', 'data-turbolinks-track': 'reload' %>

If you now visit http://localhost:3000/hello/world in your webbrowser you should see a “Hello#world” message.

2. Compile CSS with Webpacker

By default Webpacker only generates Javascript files, but we need to add CSS support as well. In config/webpacker.yml make sure you have the following settings under default::

  extract_css: true
  source_path: app

(their default values are false and app/javascript respectively). This configures Webpacker to look for entries in the app/packs folder, so let’s add a stylesheet there:

$ mkdir -p app/packs/styles
$ touch app/packs/styles/application.scss

In order to use the webpack-generated stylesheet change the following line in application.html.erb from:

<%= stylesheet_link_tag 'application', media: 'all', 'data-turbolinks-track': 'reload' %>


<%= stylesheet_pack_tag 'styles/application', media: 'all', 'data-turbolinks-track': 'reload' %>

If you now add some sample styles to your app/packs/styles/application.sass, you should see the changes reflected in your browser:

body {
  background: red;

Such nice red background, much webdesign!

Use Dart Sass instead of Node Sass

So far the above stylesheet is boring with no Sass-magic. Time to make use of the module system.

Create a new file, app/packs/styles/_background.scss with:

@mixin red {
  background: red;

and let’s use it in application.scss:

@use "background";

body {

If you now refresh your webbrowser, you’ll get a ` Webpacker::Manifest::MissingEntryError in Hello#world error. rake assets:precompile` will fail as well, but be less informative:

Compilation failed:

and if you try to compile the assets manually with webpack you’ll get an error as well:

$ npx webpack --verbose --config config/webpack/development.js
    ERROR in ./app/packs/styles/application.scss (./node_modules/css-loader/dist/cjs.js??ref--7-1!./node_modules/postcss-loader/src??ref--7-2!./node_modules/sass-loader/dist/cjs.js??ref--7-3!./app/packs/styles/application.scss)
    Module build failed (from ./node_modules/sass-loader/dist/cjs.js):

          Invalid CSS after "...lude background": expected "}", was ".red;"
          in ~/dart-sass/app/packs/styles/application.scss (line 4, column 12)
          Invalid CSS after "...lude background": expected "}", was ".red;"
          in ~/dart-sass/app/packs/styles/application.scss (line 4, column 12)
        at options.error (~/dart-sass/node_modules/node-sass/lib/index.js:291:26)

These are all expected, because we’re still using node-sass which has yet to add support for the module system.

Configure Webpacker to use Dart Sass

First, let’s add Dart Sass to the application:

$ yarn add sass

This should add the sass package with a version of at least 1.23.0.

Add the following to config/webpack/environment.js before module.exports = environment:

// Get the actual sass-loader config
const sassLoader = environment.loaders.get('sass')
const sassLoaderConfig = sassLoader.use.find(function(element) {
  return element.loader == 'sass-loader'

// Use Dart-implementation of Sass (default is node-sass)
const options = sassLoaderConfig.options
options.implementation = require('sass')

The above code basically digs into the default Sass loader that comes bundled with Webpacker, finds its configuration, and adds an implementation option set to the Dart Sass module.

Make sure to restart your webserver/webpack-dev-server and try refreshing your browser. Fancy red background is back, baby!

Congratulations, you can now use Sass modules in your Rails application stylesheets!

Versions used in this article